Mary River turtle

An adult Mary River turtle.  Photo: Queensland Government

An adult Mary River turtle.  Photo: Queensland Government

Common name: Mary River turtle, Mary River tortoise

Scientific name: Elusor macrurus

Family: Chelidae

Conservation status: The Mary River turtle is Endangered in Queensland (Nature Conservation Act 1992) and Endangered nationally (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999).


The shell of the adult Mary River turtle is smooth, streamlined, dull and unpatterned with a carapace (upper shell) length reaching 400 mm. Its eyes are dull, and dark. A pale eye ring, which is a feature of a number of other species of turtles, is absent or vague in adults and the eyelid is slightly translucent. The neck has tubercles (small rounded bumps) in two longitudinal rows. There are usually four chin barbels (slender feelers near the mouth) with one large median pair between two much smaller lateral barbels.

The males have a very long tail (up to 70 per cent of the length of the carapace in adults). This is unique among freshwater turtles.

Habitat and distribution

The Mary River turtle lives in areas of clear, slow moving water and has been found in areas where the riparian communities are heavily grazed and disturbed.

The Mary River turtle occurs in the Mary River, from Gympie, to the tidal reaches just upstream from Maryborough. It probably nests in suitable places along these parts. It is also found in Tinana Creek upstream of Tallegalla Weir. It probably occurs in all the deeper holes of the Mary River downstream from Kenilworth.

Life history and behaviour

The Mary River turtle is a cloacal ventilator (breathes oxygen through its anus) and historically these types of freshwater turtle do not do well in large standing water bodies. Cloacal ventilation allows the species to stay under water for days at a time when the water is flowing and well oxygenated. This species likes to bask in sunny locations.

Mature males are aggressive towards each other and live separately in the wild.

Egg morphology and other reproductive characters seem essentially like those of the other turtles in the Family Chelidae with a southern temperate breeding pattern. Nesting occurs in late October and again about one month later.

Threatening processes

Juvenile Mary River turtles were subjected to illegal collection for the pet trade throughout the 1960s and 1970s (they were sold as 'penny turtles'). This collection has meant that an entire generation of turtles were removed from the wild leaving a reduced, aging population.

Today nesting is threatened by egg predation from feral animals and goannas, and nest trampling by cattle. This current threat has the potential to remove another generation from the wild population and place the entire species at risk of extinction. Water quality in the streams it inhabits has declined in the past 20 years. Parts of the Mary River catchment have been cleared and heavily grazed, and on these reaches of the river, the turtle is threatened by the effects of increased runoff, siltation and pollution. A reduction in water quality can be attributed to chemical pollution and sediment runoff; commercial sand-mining upstream of turtle populations; and the direct and indirect effects of grazing activity, which may also influence changes in flow rates. Impoundments that are designed without consideration of turtle conservation may also threaten this species by injuring turtles caught in floodways and high velocity water flows. Impoundments may also impact on turtles by changing flow regimes.

Removal of riparian trees prevents recruitment of logs into the instream environment. Emergent logs and log jams may be important elements of the Mary River turtle's microhabitat.

Recovery actions

Researchers from the University of Queensland have been studying some of the habitat requirements and threats to the Mary River turtle. However further information is needed to to improve knowledge on its conservation requirements. Tiaro & District Landcare Group operates a nest protection program and supports research on this turtle.

Management recommendations include:

  • Feral animal control, mainly foxes, in known nesting areas. Protecting nests with plastic mesh and fox baiting have proved to be the most successful methods to minimise nest predation.
  • Protect nesting sites from access of stock to prevent trampling.
  • Monitor the impact of grazing on water quality and adjust grazing management to reduce adverse impacts.
  • Strictly adhere to watercourse protection zone guidelines, as outlined in the Code of Practice - Native Forest Timber Production.
  • Control public access at known Mary River turtle nesting sites on State forests and timber reserves.


Beukeboom, R 2015. Masters research project. ‘Threats to the early life stages of the Mary River Turtle (Elusor macrurus) from Queensland, Australia’. Utrecht University, Netherlands.

Cann, J 1998. Australian Freshwater Turtles, Beaumont Publishing.

Cogger, HG 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Reed New Holland.

Cogger, HG, Cameron, E, Sadlier, R & Eggler, P 1993. The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Micheli-Campbell, MA, 2012. PhD Thesis. ‘Habitat requirements for nesting and early life-stages of the endangered Mary River turtle (Elusor macrurus): Insights for conservation’, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Changes to conservation classes in Queensland

On 22 August 2020, changes were made to Queensland’s threatened species conservation classes. The classifications and species listings on this website are currently being reviewed, and updated where required, to align with these new classes.