End of waste (EOW) framework

    The end of waste (EOW) framework under Chapter 8 and Chapter 8A of the Waste Reduction and Recycling Act 2011 promotes resource recovery opportunities and aims to transform the perception of waste from being seen as waste to being valued as a resource. This framework replaced the beneficial use approval (BUA) framework on 8 November 2016. The EOW framework consists of EOW codes and approvals:

    • EOW codes relate to registered resource producers and resource users for a code.
    • EOW approvals are considered on a trial basis for reusing waste as resources for which an EOW code has not been developed for the waste.

    A waste can be approved as a resource if the department considers that it meets specified quality criteria for its specific use. It is the registered resource producer's responsibility to ensure that the resource meets the specified criteria and quality characteristics prior to supplying the resource to the user for approved use. If a waste is approved as a resource under the EOW framework, it is no longer considered a waste under s. 13 of the Environmental Protection Act 1994. However, if the resource is not used in accordance with the EOW code or approval, it is deemed to be a waste.

    Operating under an EOW code can have the following benefits:

    • less regulation for the reuse of waste, e.g. approvals relating to regulated waste are not required
    • volumes of waste disposed to landfill are reduced, reducing the cost associated with disposal
    • costs from using raw materials may be reduced
    • reuse of the waste may have a monetary value.

    Under the transitional provisions in the legislation, resources approved under specific BUAs issued prior to 8 November 2016 can continue to be used as a resource for the uses specified under those approvals until the end of the approval period for the BUA (the period specified in the relevant Notice).

    For more details on the EOW framework, refer to the relevant sections below and the End of waste (EOW) guideline—ESR/2016/3323 (PDF, 270.7KB) .

    End of waste codes

    EOW codes are outcome-focused. They specify outcomes that need to be achieved in order for a waste to be deemed a resource. A waste producer may supply a waste as a resource under an EOW code provided they have registered with the department and can comply with the requirements of the code.

    Where the use of a waste as a resource has been demonstrated to have benefits through sustainable use and negligible environmental risks, consideration may be given to developing an EOW code. The EOW code will state requirements for the registered resource producer as well as conditions for the use of the resource. It will be the registered resource producer’s responsibility to ensure that the resource supplied to resource users meets criteria and quality characteristics specified in the code. Similarly, it will be the resource user’s responsibility to ensure that the resource is used for the relevant use in accordance with the conditions imposed on the use of the resource.

    Annual call for submissions

    The department calls for submissions annually for the development of EOW codes. While submissions on all resource types are considered by the department, the decision on whether or not to develop an EOW code is at the department’s discretion. Where the department considers that a waste has properties that make it comparable to a product and has negligible environmental risks, it may develop a draft EOW code for the waste. A technical advisory panel may be established by the department for the development of an EOW code. Once a draft EOW code has been developed, it will undergo a public consultation process to allow all stakeholders the opportunity to provide comment on the proposed EOW code.

    The annual submissions for 2021 is now open until 31 January 2022.

    Notice inviting submissions for new end of waste codes

    The department invites submissions on the development of new EOW codes under s. 160 of the Waste Reduction and Recycling Act 2011. A person may make a submission to the chief executive about any particular waste for which an EOW code should be prepared. The submission period during which submission may be made closes on 31 January 2022. Feedback received will help inform the development of future EOW codes where there is strong industry demand.

    To have your say, complete the Submission for proposed end of waste code form (ESR/2016/3304) and return to the department by 31 January 2022.

    Register to operate under an EOW code

    A person must register as a resource producer to operate under an EOW code. If a person is not registered as a resource producer, the material is deemed to still be a waste and must be continued to be managed in accordance with relevant waste management provisions under the Environmental Protection Act 1994 and the Waste Reduction and Recycling Act 2011. Users of the resource do not need to register with the department unless the EOW code specifically requires notification under the conditions of the EOW code. Penalties may apply if the requirements and/or conditions of an EOW code are not complied with.

    To register as a resource producer or to stop being registered as a resource producer for an EOW code, the Registered resource producer for an end of waste code (ESR/2018/4082) (DOCX, 182.9KB) notice of registration form is to be completed and provided to the department. Some EOW codes will also require, as a condition, that the proposed user of the resource must notify the department before the resource is used. The Resource user for an end of waste code notification form (ESR/2018/4552) (DOCX, 177.9KB) may be used to meet this notification requirement.

    Current end of waste codes

    Approved resource EOW code reference
    Abattoir Effluent Pond Sludge and Crust ENEW07617019 (ESR/2020/5400) (PDF, 115.8KB)
    ACQ treated timber shavings ENEW07607119 (ESR/2020/5213) (PDF, 256.0KB)
    Associated water (including coal seam gas water) ENEW07547018 (ESR/2018/4713) (PDF, 630.6KB)
    Associated water for irrigation (including coal seam gas water) ENEW07546918 (ESR/2018/4712) (PDF, 759.3KB)
    Biosolids ENEW07359617 (ESR/2018/4548) (PDF, 867.6KB)
    Chemically treated solid timber ENEW07503218 (ESR/2019/4933) (PDF, 518.3KB)
    Coal combustion products ENEW07359717 (ESR/2018/4549) (PDF, 517.0KB)
    Coal seam gas drilling mud ENEW07543018 (ESR/2018/4550) (PDF, 155.5KB)
    Concrete (Liquid washout) ENEW07602719 (ESR/2020/5249) (PDF, 100.9KB)
    Concrete (Returned concrete) ENEW07278517 (ESR/2020/5247) (PDF, 271.5KB)
    Concrete (Solid washout) ENEW07602819 (ESR/2020/5248) (PDF, 160.9KB)
    Dunder ENEW07503118 (ESR/2019/4934) (PDF, 744.4KB)
    Ferronickel slag ENEW07576219 (ESR/2020/5413) (PDF, 113.6KB)
    Ferrous chloride ENEW07530718 (ESR/2020/5478) (PDF, 403.6KB)
    Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate ENEW07597919 (ESR/2019/5175) (PDF, 320.9KB)
    Fertiliser wash water and slurry ENEW07278417 (ESR/2018/4173) (PDF, 137.4KB)
    Fibre cement boardENEW07359417(ESR/2021/5858) (PDF, 454.0KB)
    Foundry sand ENEW07359617 (ESR/2018/4551) (PDF, 751.0KB)
    Garnet sand EOWC010000731 (ESR/2021/5665) (PDF, 286.9KB)
    Oyster shells ENEW07278317 (ESR/2018/4174) (PDF, 122.2KB)
    Paunch ENEW07597819 (ESR/2020/5243) (PDF, 312.7KB)
    Plasterboard ENEW07618819 (ESR/2021/5629) (PDF, 408.7KB)
    Recycled aggregates ENEW07604819 (ESR/2021/5565) (PDF, 294.8KB)
    Spent sulphuric acid EOWC010000394 (ESR/2021/5637) (PDF, 311.9KB)
    Sugar refinery clarifier sludge ENEW07576119 (ESR/2019/5171) (PDF, 314.0KB)
    Sugar mill by-products ENEW07359817 (ESR/2018/4440) (PDF, 129.4KB)
    Tyres (End-of-life tyres) ENEW07503018 (ESR/2020/5244) (PDF, 650.7KB)
    Used vegetable oil ENEW07611019 (ESR/2020/5258) (PDF, 264.9KB)
    Water treatment residuals ENEW07503318 (ESR/2019/4944) (PDF, 646.8KB)

    *Please note that the above EOW codes remain in force until otherwise cancelled, amended or suspended.

    Expression of Interest to become a member of Technical Advisory Panel(s) for the development of draft End of Waste Codes

    Chapter 8 of the Waste Reduction and Recycling Act 2011 enables the department to make an end of waste code, which stipulates when a specific waste ceases to be a waste and becomes a resource for a specific purpose. The department may establish a Technical Advisory Panel to prepare a draft end of waste code or to advise the department about a draft end of waste code, or an amendment to an end of waste code.

    The department is creating a list of experts who could be a part of a Technical Advisory Panel. To this end, the department invites interested persons to express their interest in being included on a list of experts. As the need arises, the department may invite experts to be a part of a Technical Advisory Panel to prepare (or provide advice about) a draft end of waste code. Please be advised that the department is under no obligation to invite persons on the list to participate on a Technical Advisory Panel.

    In order to be considered for the list of experts, interested persons will need to:

    1. nominate a waste material(s), waste type(s), or other specific area of expertise in which they are qualified and experienced. Other specific areas of expertise may include, for example, chemicals, environmental assessment and expertise associated with the potential end use of a waste,
    2. be well established in the nominated area of expertise evidenced through qualifications, experience, or professional recognition,
    3. be a member of a relevant professional organisation(s) where applicable,
    4. be willing to provide inputs intermittently over a given period (approximately 6 months) on a volunteer basis,
    5. provide a resume demonstrating the general requirements above and provide two professional referees, and
    6. provide a cover letter (maximum 2 pages) demonstrating the skills relevant to the area of expertise.

    If you are interested in being included on the list of experts, please send an email to RRS.Consultation@des.qld.gov.au with ‘TAP EOI - waste type’ as the subject heading demonstrating the general requirements above.

    This is an open invitation and expressions of interest (EOI) are welcome at any time. The department will review EOIs as they are received and advise each applicant of the outcome. If you have any questions regarding the process to establish a technical advisory panel or the role of the panel in the development or amendment of an end of waste code, please send your enquiries to RRS.Consultation@des.qld.gov.au

    Schedule of proposed end of waste codes

    The following schedule provides details on the development of draft EOW codes. You may register interest in being consulted when a draft code is being prepared. To register your interest please provide your: name; company name (if applicable); email; postal address and telephone (e.g. a signature block) and the EOW Code(s) that you wish to be consulted on to the Department. This information is to be provided to RRS.Consultation@des.qld.gov.au with the subject heading ‘EOI – consultation on draft codes’. Please note all the draft codes listed in the schedule will be made publicly available on this website for consultation and registration is not essential to provide comment.


    Proposed use

    TAP identified as required

    Date for commencement of draft code development

    Proposed date for completion of the draft code development

    Amorphous silica powder Fertiliser No 15 June 2020 30 November 2021
    Anaerobic digestion digestateSoil conditioner/FertiliserNo05 May 202110 December 2021
    Carbide lime Sewage treatment; Wastewater treatment; Road construction operations. No Public consultation completed Public consultation completed
    Glass fines Aggregate in unbound pavement; As sand replacement in asphalt and civil engineering structures No Public consultation completed Public consultation completed
    Silica fumes Supplementary cementitious material in concrete and other cement products like shot-crete No 03 May 2021 30 November 2021
    Ground granulated blast furnace slag Supplementary cementitious material in concrete and other cement products;  Stabilised pavements No 03 May 2021 30 November 2021
    Glycerol Feedstock in manufacturing compost No Public consultation completed Public consultation completed

    *Please note that in the event of any changes to the proposed date for completion following unforeseen circumstances, an update will be provided on this website accordingly.

    End of waste approvals

    EOW approvals are primarily intended to be used when there is a potential market / demand for a resource and an EOW code for that resource has not been developed. EOW approvals are considered on a trial basis for reusing waste as resources and to apply to a single holder for the purpose of the trial. The EOW approval will be issued only for the length of time required to undertake the trial, with only one extension to the approval period being granted if required.

    The department will consider the findings of the trial (e.g. benefits, sustainability, environmental impacts and environmental best practice) prior to deciding whether an EOW code should be developed for that waste type.


    Applicants are encouraged to participate in a pre-design/pre-lodgement meeting with the department to help identify whether an application for an EOW approval should be submitted, and if so, what information to submit with the application, identify any issues relevant to a specific project, and to receive guidance on regulatory expectations. These meetings are free of charge and may assist in reducing assessment timeframes. To request a pre-design/pre-lodgement meeting, please complete and return the form Application for a pre-design/pre-lodgement meeting—ESR/2015/1664 (DOCX, 292.3KB) .

    Application forms

    All applications must include the Part A and Part B forms below. In addition, applications for a new EOW approval or an amendment to an existing EOW approval will require a report by a suitably qualified person as per the format below to support the application:

    Transitional arrangements for existing specific BUAs

    Existing specific BUAs can continue to be used for the uses specified under the approval until the end of the approval period for the BUA.

    Review of decision

    If you have been affected by a decision in relation to an EOW approval, you may have review rights. Sections 174–179 of the Waste Reduction and Recycling Act 2011 detail the internal review process. An internal review must be requested prior to pursuing a review from other external parties. If you are eligible to request an internal review and you would like to have the decision reviewed, please complete and return the form Application for an internal review—ESR/2015/1633 (DOCX, 121.6KB) .