Hopeland groundwater sampling results and findings

    Bore locations map

    • Former Linc Energy bore sites
    • Kummerows Road bore sites
    • Former Mineral Development lease
    • Former Linc Energy Site – lot 40 DY85

    Monitoring bores installed on the former Linc Energy site - findings

    In 2017, the department installed a groundwater monitoring network around the perimeter of the former Linc site. In 2020, this network was expanded to include two bores on the Linc Energy site

    The Linc Energy site is contaminated as a result of undertaking UCG activities, therefore findings of benzene, cyanide and other contaminants is expected above guideline values.

    Sampling on the Linc site has shown the presence of UCG contaminants benzene and total cyanide.

    These bores are not used for irrigation, or human or stock consumption.

    As a result of the groundwater contamination on the former Linc Energy site, the site is listed on the Contaminated Land Register (CLR) which recognises that the site is heavily contaminated and requires ongoing monitoring and remediation.

    At present, groundwater is flowing back towards the Linc site.

    Data is listed below for benzene and total cyanide levels in the 13 groundwater monitoring bores on the former Linc Energy site since 2021.

    HSMB1S

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB1SWater19/01/2021no sample236
    HSMB1SWater20/06/20210.360228
    HSMB1SWater30/10/20210.332207
    HSMB1SWater12/05/20220.303108
    HSMB1SWater29/07/2022no sampleno sample
    HSMB1SWater12/10/20220.323109

    HSMB1S Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB1S Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Date mg/L
    19/01/20210
    20/06/20210.360
    30/10/20210.332
    12/05/20220.303
    29/07/20220
    12/10/20220.323

    HSMB1S Benzene μg/L

    Show data

    HSMB1S Benzene μg/L
    Date μg/L
    19/01/2021236
    20/06/2021228
    30/10/2021207
    12/05/2022108
    29/07/20220
    12/10/2022109

    HSMB1D

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB1DWater3/03/20210.93618
    HSMB1DWater8/07/20210.7438
    HSMB1DWater26/10/20210.56021
    HSMB1DWater10/05/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB1DWater29/07/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB1DWater12/10/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*

    HSMB1D Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB1D Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Date mg/L
    3/03/20210.936
    8/07/20210.743
    26/10/20210.560
    10/05/2022 
    29/07/2022 
    12/10/2022

    HSMB1D Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB1D Benzene μg/L
    Date μg/L
    3/03/202118
    8/07/20218
    26/10/202121
    10/05/2022 
    29/07/2022 
    12/10/2022

    HSMB2D

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB2DWater24/01/2021no sample11
    HSMB2DWater8/05/20210.39414
    HSMB2DWater21/09/20210.42513
    HSMB2DWater9/05/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB2DWater29/07/2022no sampleno sample
    HSMB2DWater12/10/2022no sampleno sample

    HSMB2D Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB2D Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    24/01/2021 0
    8/05/2021 0.394
    21/09/2021 0.425
    9/05/2022  
    29/07/2022 
    12/10/2022

    HSMB2D Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB2D Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    24/01/2021 11
    8/05/2021 14
    21/09/2021 13
    9/05/2022  
    29/07/2022 
    12/10/2022

    HSMB2S

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB2SWater23/02/20210.614170
    HSMB2SWater24/02/20210.633133
    HSMB2SWater1/03/20210.636156
    HSMB2SWater29/06/20210.438164
    HSMB2SWater30/06/20210.441167
    HSMB2SWater6/07/20210.445139
    HSMB2SWater14/09/20210.464159
    HSMB2SWater15/09/20210.449163
    HSMB2SWater20/09/20210.415144
    HSMB2SWater12/05/20220.430102
    HSMB2SWater2/08/20220.407105
    HSMB2SWater13/10/20220.47897

    HSMB2S Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB2S Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    23/02/20210.614
    24/02/20210.633
    1/03/20210.636
    29/06/20210.438
    30/06/20210.441
    6/07/20210.445
    14/09/20210.464
    15/09/20210.449
    20/09/20210.415
    12/05/20220.430
    2/08/20220.407
    13/10/20220.478

    HSMB2S Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB2S Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    23/02/2021170
    24/02/2021133
    1/03/2021156
    29/06/2021164
    30/06/2021167
    6/07/2021139
    14/09/2021159
    15/09/2021163
    20/09/2021144
    12/05/2022102
    2/08/2022105
    13/10/202297

    HSMB3D1

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB3D1Water15/01/2021no sample10
    HSMB3D1Water1/05/20210.0419
    HSMB3D1Water5/09/20210.0529
    HSMB3D1Water11/05/20220.0406
    HSMB3D1Water2/08/20220.0366
    HSMB3D1Water14/10/20220.0315

    HSMB3D1 Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB3D1 Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    15/01/20210
    1/05/20210.041
    5/09/20210.052
    11/05/20220.040
    2/08/20220.036
    14/10/20220.031

    HSMB3D1 Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB3D1 Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    15/01/202110
    1/05/20219
    5/09/20219
    11/05/20226
    2/08/20226
    14/10/20225

    HSMB3D2

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB3D2Water20/01/2021no sample2
    HSMB3D2Water21/01/2021no sample1
    HSMB3D2Water27/05/20210.1123
    HSMB3D2Water23/09/20210.0782
    HSMB3D2Water10/05/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB3D2Water3/08/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB3D2Water17/10/20220.0863

    HSMB3D2 Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB3D2 Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    20/01/20210
    21/01/20210
    27/05/20210.112
    23/09/20210.078
    10/05/2022 
    3/08/2022 
    17/10/20220.086

    HSMB3D2 Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB3D2 Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    20/01/20212
    21/01/20211
    27/05/20213
    23/09/20212
    10/05/2022 
    3/08/2022 
    17/10/20223

    HSMB3S1

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB3S1Water3/02/20210.0195
    HSMB3S1Water8/02/20210.020no sample
    HSMB3S1Water28/04/20210.0124
    HSMB3S1Water3/09/20210.0185
    HSMB3S1Water11/05/20220.0154
    HSMB3S1Water2/08/20220.0164
    HSMB3S1Water14/10/20220.0154

    HSMB3S1 Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB3S1 Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    3/02/20210.019
    8/02/20210.020
    28/04/20210.012
    3/09/20210.018
    11/05/20220.015
    2/08/20220.016
    14/10/20220.015

    HSMB3S1 Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB3S1 Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    3/02/20215
    8/02/2021 
    28/04/20214
    3/09/20215
    11/05/20224
    2/08/20224
    14/10/20224

    HSMB3S2

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB3S2Water23/01/2021no sample48
    HSMB3S2Water29/05/20210.11032
    HSMB3S2Water25/09/20210.09817
    HSMB3S2Water10/05/20220.0867
    HSMB3S2Water3/08/20220.0748
    HSMB3S2Water17/10/20220.0837

    HSMB3S2 Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB3S2 Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    23/01/20210
    29/05/20210.110
    25/09/20210.098
    10/05/20220.086
    3/08/20220.074
    17/10/20220.083

    HSMB3S2 Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB3S2 Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    23/01/202148
    29/05/202132
    25/09/202117
    10/05/20227
    3/08/20228
    17/10/20227

    HSMB4D

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB4DWater14/02/20211.036
    HSMB4DWater18/06/20211.257
    HSMB4DWater9/10/20211.1212
    HSMB4DWater11/05/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB4DWater4/08/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*
    HSMB4DWater18/10/2022Failed QA checks*Failed QA checks*

    HSMB4D Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB4D Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    14/02/20211.03
    18/06/20211.25
    9/10/20211.12
    11/05/2022 
    4/08/2022 
    18/10/2022

    HSMB4D Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB4D Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    14/02/20216
    18/06/20217
    9/10/202112
    11/05/2022 
    4/08/2022 
    18/10/2022

    HSMB4S

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB4SWater17/01/2021no sample455
    HSMB4SWater7/05/20210.422434
    HSMB4SWater19/09/20210.372459
    HSMB4SWater11/05/20220.416287
    HSMB4SWater4/08/20220.363293
    HSMB4SWater18/10/20220.422302

    HSMB4S Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB4S Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    17/01/20210
    7/05/20210.422
    19/09/20210.372
    11/05/20220.416
    4/08/20220.363
    18/10/20220.422

    HSMB4S Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB4S Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    17/01/2021455
    7/05/2021434
    19/09/2021459
    11/05/2022287
    4/08/2022293
    18/10/2022302

    HSMB5D

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB5DWater4/02/20210.26014
    HSMB5DWater4/02/20210.269no sample
    HSMB5DWater5/02/20210.27712
    HSMB5DWater5/02/20210.282no sample
    HSMB5DWater10/02/20210.28612
    HSMB5DWater8/06/20210.22313
    HSMB5DWater9/06/20210.23711
    HSMB5DWater14/06/20210.21212
    HSMB5DWater7/10/20210.17013
    HSMB5DWater8/10/20210.1988
    HSMB5DWater12/10/20210.19611
    HSMB5DWater11/05/2022no sampleno sample
    HSMB5DWater4/08/20220.11610
    HSMB5DWater18/10/20220.1409

    HSMB5D Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB5D Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    4/02/20210.260
    4/02/20210.269
    5/02/20210.277
    5/02/20210.282
    10/02/20210.286
    8/06/20210.223
    9/06/20210.237
    14/06/20210.212
    7/10/20210.170
    8/10/20210.198
    12/10/20210.196
    11/05/2022 
    4/08/20220.116
    18/10/20220.140

    HSMB5D Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB5D Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    4/02/202114
    4/02/2021 
    5/02/202112
    5/02/2021 
    10/02/202112
    8/06/202113
    9/06/202111
    14/06/202112
    7/10/202113
    8/10/20218
    12/10/202111
    11/05/2022 
    4/08/202210
    18/10/20229

    HSMB6S

    Location CodeMatrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB6Swater20/04/20210.5029
    HSMB6Swater23/05/20210.2968
    HSMB6Swater28/08/20210.1205
    HSMB6Swater12/05/20220.036below limit of reporting
    HSMB6Swater12/08/2022no sampleno sample
    HSMB6Swater19/10/2022no sampleno sample

    HSMB6S Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    HSMB6S Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    20/04/20210.502
    23/05/20210.296
    28/08/20210.120
    12/05/20220.036
    12/08/2022 
    19/10/2022

    HSMB6S Benzene μg/L

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    HSMB6S Benzene μg/L
    Date μg/L
    20/04/2021 9
    23/05/2021 8
    28/08/2021 5
    12/05/2022  
    12/08/2022 
    19/10/2022

    HSMB6D2

    Location Code Matrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB6D2water18/04/20210.115below limit of reporting
    HSMB6D2water25/05/20210.079below limit of reporting
    HSMB6D2water26/08/20210.057below limit of reporting
    HSMB6D2water12/05/20220.050below limit of reporting
    HSMB6D2water12/08/2022no sampleno sample
    HSMB6D2water19/10/2022no sampleno sample

    HSMB6D2 Cyanide Total mg/L

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    HSMB6D2 Cyanide Total mg/L
    Datemg/L
    18/04/20210.115
    25/05/20210.079
    26/08/20210.057
    12/05/20220.050
    12/08/2022 
    19/10/2022

    HSMB6D2 Benzene μg/L

    HSMB6D2 Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    14/04/2021 0
    19/05/2021 0
    1/09/2021 0
    13/05/2022 0
    12/08/2022 0
    19/10/2022 0

    *some samples failed QA checks because the head pressure in the bores required distilled water to be introduced to safely install the pump and reduce gas generation. As a result, diluted bore water was sampled. The department’s quality control program later determined that these results were not representative of the groundwater.

    Monitoring bores installed on Kummerows Road - findings

    In December 2020, as part of the further expansion of the groundwater monitoring network, two additional groundwater monitoring bores were installed in Kummerows Road. Kummerows Road is a narrow road reserve between 20-30 metres wide and the bores are approximately 650 metres west of the boundary of the Linc Energy site.

    Sampling of the Kummerows Road bores commenced in April 2021. Due to the slow moving nature of groundwater returning to the bore after drilling, it takes time before a representative sample can be taken from a new bore. These bores required regular purging over a period of time to ensure samples were representative.

    Landholders do not access water from the Kummerows Road bores – they exist solely for monitoring. These bores are not used for irrigation, or human or stock consumption.

    Specialists from the Department of Environment and Science have reviewed the results from the Kummerows Road bores.

    The deeper of the two Kummerows Road bores, shows the presence of both benzene and total cyanide contaminants at concentrations that exceed livestock drinking water guidelines (ANZECC, 2000 Water Quality Guidelines) and human drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011 Australian Drinking Water Guidelines).

    This bore also has naturally high levels of inorganic salts, as measured by the total dissolved solid concentrations, which makes it unsuitable for human consumption.

    In April 2021, there was one reading of total cyanide in the shallow bore above drinking and stock water guidelines, but this has since dropped below guideline values.

    The analysis of the samples indicates that the concentration of contaminants is trending down.

    Data is listed below for benzene and total cyanide in the two groundwater monitoring bores located at Kummerows Road.

    Kummerows Road Results - HSMB7S

    Location CodeMatrix TypeDateCyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB7Swater16/04/20210.090below limit of reporting
    HSMB7Swater21/05/20210.078below limit of reporting
    HSMB7Swater30/08/20210.064below limit of reporting
    HSMB7Swater13/05/20220.014below limit of reporting
    HSMB7Swater12/08/20220.006below limit of reporting
    HSMB7Swater19/10/20220.006below limit of reporting

    Kummerows Road - HSMB7S Cyanide Total (mg/L)

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    Kummerows Road - HSMB7S Cyanide Total (mg/L)
    Datemg/L
    16/04/2021 0.090
    21/05/2021 0.078
    30/08/2021 0.064
    13/05/2022 0.014
    12/08/2022 0.006
    19/10/20220.006

    Kummerows Road - HSMB7S Benzene μg/L

    Kummerows Road - HSMB7S Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    16/04/2021 0
    21/05/2021 0
    30/08/2021 0
    13/05/2022 0
    12/08/2022 0
    19/10/20220

    Kummerows Road Results - HSMB7D

    Location Code Matrix TypeDate Cyanide
    Total (mg/L)
    Benzene (μg/L)
    HSMB7D water 14/04/2021 0.717 18
    HSMB7D water 19/05/2021 0.936 25
    HSMB7D water 1/09/2021 0.707 17
    HSMB7D water 13/05/2022 0.684 13
    HSMB7D water 12/08/2022 0.649 12
    HSMB7Dwater19/10/20220.61811

    Kummerows Road - HSMB7D Cyanide Total mg/L

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    Kummerows Road - HSMB7D Cyanide Total mg/L
    Datemg/L
    14/04/2021 0.717
    19/05/2021 0.936
    1/09/2021 0.707
    13/05/2022 0.684
    12/08/2022 0.649
    19/10/20220.618

    Kummerows Road - HSMB7D Benzene μg/L

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    Kummerows Road - HSMB7D Benzene μg/L
    Dateμg/L
    14/04/2021 18
    19/05/2021 25
    1/09/2021 17
    13/05/2022 13
    12/08/2022 12
    19/10/202211

    Monitoring bores installed on private property - findings

    Since 2015, more than 130 samples have been taken and analysed from landholders’ bores.

    The results of this groundwater sampling have been provided directly to those landowners.

    The monitoring within landholder bores has found that Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) contaminants benzene or total cyanide have not impacted the water quality values in landholder bores.

    As a result, the current risk to nearby landholders has been assessed as low to negligible.